Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics addresses the character and the behavior of the individual (virtue ethics.) At the end of this book, he declares that the inquiry into ethics necessarily leads to politics, and his book Politics therefore deals with the “philosophy of human affairs” in the city.  The city is for him a natural community, therefore […]

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Aristotle (384–322 B.C.E.) is one of the greatest philosophers of all time. Together with Plato, he shaped Western philosophy for two millenia, and his ideas and concepts are still discussed today. He wrote about two-hundred treatises, but we currently know only about 31. He writes about logic, metaphysics, philosophy of mind, ethics, political theory, aesthetics […]

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Anaximander (610-546BC) is a pre-socratic philosopher; what we know about him originates mainly in texts from Aritstotle and others. Only one fragment of his writings survives; it is considered to be the oldest fragment in the history of Western thinking. The Anaximander Fragment “Whence things have their origin, Thence also their destruction happens, According to […]

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