In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of earlier philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influences the 19th century generation of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism began; it inspires music, literature, and philosophy. The early 19th century is dominated by Hegel and German Idealism. Napoleon brought political turmoil to Europe, and the old monarchies are slowly crumbling.
Key ideas that sparked changes in philosophy were the fast progress of science and the idea of evolution. We can also find the emergent economic theories of capitalism and free markets. Marxism is developed, urbanization takes place, and Europe extends its powers into the rest of the world ( Colonialism.) The idea of nation states gets solidified. Political parties emerge; pressures for social and economic justice leads to a period in a period of revolutions and turbulence that would see philosophy change as well.