The following essay by Spinoza about political systems was written in 1675, remained unfinished, and was published after Spinoza’s death in 1677. It is not to be confused with the Tractatus Theologico-Politicus, which was published in 1670.  The latter contains a critique of Judaism and organized religion, and maintains that theology and philosophy should be […]

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Spinoza’s Ethics is one one of the most influential books in Western philosophy. It was published by a friend in 1677, shortly after he had died. It was immediately attacked as being atheistic, because it suggests a conception of God without any anthropomorphic characteristics. The God of Spinoza is not personal; it is a God […]

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Baruch Spinoza was a Jewish philosopher of the 17th century who was in many ways ahead of his time, and therefore he did not have an easy life. Many 20th century philosophers regard him highly, because he is a very consistent thinker who begins with simple assumptions and draws radical conclusions. He claims that there […]

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