Thanks to modern science, we now know more about religious history than ever: Scientific archaeology began in the 18th century, and since then excavators have been discovering and interpreting evidence, ranging from tiny goddess figurines carved from mammoth ivory to entire sacred landscapes, such as at the Giza plateau in Egypt. The archeological evidence enhances and […]

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This page covers people and movements in the tradition of Western mysticism, from the early Greek period to about 1700. It is arranged chronologically, and it’s purpose is to give a short overview of Western mysticism with links to other websites. As much as possible, I try to link to the etexts for the mystical writings of these […]

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Before we can say what religious texts are, we have to define the concept of religion.  The idea of a “religious text” is already an interpretation, unless one just says that the text in question is central to a particular tradition of faith.  Texts like the Torah, the Bible, or the Vedas “anchor” religions, because […]

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Das absolute Wissen ist das lezte Kapitel in Hegels Buch Phänomenologie des Geistes,  welches 1807 veröffentlicht wurde. “Der Geist der offenbaren Religion hat sein Bewußtsein als solches noch nicht überwunden, oder, was dasselbe ist, sein wirkliches Selbstbewußtsein ist nicht der Gegenstand seines Bewußtseins; er selbst überhaupt und die in ihm sich unterscheidenden Momente fallen in das […]

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 A Short Summary of the Arguments. Freud is an atheist; God does not exist for him. For Freud and Lacan, the hypothesis of God’s existence contradicts the principles and results of modern science. The task of psychoanalysis is to explain not only the existence and the pervasiveness of religion, but also its incredible resilience throughout […]

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Freud believed, more so towards the end of his life, that there is a truth in religion: not the “material truth”, or the truth of the believers, but the “historical truth”, the truth that “exists” in the unconscious as a repressed memory and manifests itself in repetition.

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