The use of torture as a form of punishment was commonplace in European societies into the early 19th century. Today, we are outraged by mass killings, genocide, and ISIS beheadings, but extreme violence has always been there; it runs deep in human history. We are all traumatized, and it is difficult to work through the […]

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Friends and Citizens: The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially […]

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The following historical timeline for Africa is adapted from: The African Experience. From “Lucy” to Mandela. By: Kenneth P. Vickery. Teaching Company, 2007. c. 4–3 million B.C Emergence of Australopithecus, possibly the first in the hominid line of evolution, culminating in modern humans in East/Southern Africa. c. 1.5 million B.C Emergence of Homo erectus in […]

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Which movements, ideas, and events have contributed to the history and development of the concept of human rights?  The following list is very selective; it shows some historical highlights that manifest the trend that runs through the Western legal and philosophical traditions. Traditional Religions all support idea that the human person has worth and value […]

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The Renaissance is a cultural movement that starts from Italy in the mid-14th century and spreads through Europe. It brings the Medieval time period to an end, and is marked by a changing consciousness about politics, the world, and art. It’s the time of da Vinci, Michelangelo, Giotto, Titian, Raphael, Donatello, or Brunelleshi. Here is […]

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I wanted to know more about the human prehistory; where we come from and what we really know about our own origins.The timeline below gives you a rough overview; it is a fascinating story. One way to sequence human prehistory is by the type of tools that were in use. Early on, researchers came up […]

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From Walter Benjamin: Illuminations. p. 253 This text was written in 1940 and is published in German in “Gesammelten Schriften I:2. Suhrkamp Verlag. Frankfurt am Main, 1974.” I It is well-known that an automaton once existed, which was so constructed that it could counter any move of a chess-player with a counter-move, and thereby assure itself of […]

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