This is an extract from a short text by Gordon Allport (Becoming, 1955) subtitled: Basic Considerations for a Psychology of Personality. In these passages, the human being is seen as characterized by a process of individuation (personal) and socialization (tribal). According to the vision of the human being held by Gordon Allport: “All his life. […]

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The following passages are from Chapter V of Fear from Freedom. Erich Fromm explores and presents the psychological and social mechanisms that lead an individual to be afraid of freedom and to prefer to give it up. They appear as the tendency to be led by a “superior” power and/or to behave like a social […]

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The following essay by Georg Lukács on Existentialism was written in 1949, and translated by Henry F. Mins. Georg Lukács is a Marxist thinker who criticizes existentialism: it is a compromise between idealism and materialism, it elevates nihilism to an existentialist attitude, and it turns freedom into a fetish. Source: Existentialism Tout se passe comme si […]

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Anxiety/dread/angst is unfocused fear. If a man stands on the edge of a tall building or cliff and looks over the edge, he experiences a focused fear of falling. At the same time, the man feels a terrifying impulse to throw himself intentionally off the edge. That experience is anxiety or dread because of our complete freedom to choose to either throw oneself off or to stay put. The mere fact that one has the possibility and freedom to do something, even the most terrifying of possibilities, triggers immense feelings of dread. This is our “dizziness of freedom.”

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This is an extract from Part II of , which is Viktor Frankl’s introduction to logotherapy. The central concept of logotherapy is meaning and the search for it. This will give us the strength to surmount even the most difficult occurrences in life. Viktor Frankl knows what he is talking about: he had to endure three […]

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[5] Wir bedenken das Wesen des Handelns noch lange nicht entschieden genug. Man kennt das Handeln nur als das Bewirken einer Wirkung. Deren Wirklichkeit wird geschätzt nach ihrem Nutzen. Aber das Wesen des Handelns ist das Vollbringen. Vollbringen heißt: etwas in die Fülle seines Wesens entfalten, in diese hervorgeleiten, producere. Vollbringbar ist deshalb eigentlich nur […]

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