Global History – Timeline

Overview by Period and Region

Prehistoric Landmarks

c. 2−2.5 million……………..More humanlike species with larger brain size years ago in eastern Africa.
120,000 years ago ………….Arrival of Homo sapiens sapiens; later displacement of Neanderthals and other species across Asia and Europe from initial center in Africa.
25,000 BCE…………………..Passage of people to the Americas via land link from Asia.
8000−5000 BCE ……………Further improvements in tool making; first development of agriculture; great expansion in human population.
4000−3500 BCE ……………Early use of bronze and copper tools.
1500 BCE……………………..Early use of iron tools and weapons. River Valley Civilizations
3500−2600 BCE ……………Sumerian kingdom, development of cuneiform writing; river valley civilizations also in Egypt and India.
1150−130 BCE ……………..Books of the Jewish Old Testament written.

Classical Civilizations

China

1029−258 BCE ……………..China’s Zhou dynasty.
551−478 BCE ……………….Confucius.
202 BCE–220 CE ………….Han dynasty.

India

c. 563−483 BCE…………….Gautama Buddha.
322−184 BCE ……………….Mauryan dynasty.

Mediterranean (Greece and Rome)

800 BCE……………………….Rise of Greek city-states and economy; Homeric epics, Iliad and Odyssey; beginnings of Rome.
330 BCE ff……………………Macedonian Empire; Alexander the Great.
27 BCE…………………………Augustus Caesar; rise of Roman Empire; 476, fall of Rome.
313 CE …………………………Constantine adopts Christianity.

The Extension of Civilization

Middle East

570−632 ………………………Muhammad and the foundation of Islam.
750−1258 ……………………..Abbasid caliphate.

Western Europe

800−814 ……………………….Charlemagne’s empire.

Americas

1350 ff………………………….Formation of Aztec Empire; height of Incan Empire.

Sub-Saharan Africa

1210−1400 ……………………Empire of Mali.

East Asia

618−907 ……………………….Tang dynasty.
1236–1258 ……………………Mongol conquests in Middle East, Russia.
1279 …………………………….Toppling of Sung dynasty by Kublai Khan and Mongols.

Byzantium and Eastern Europe

1054 …………………………….Schism between Eastern and Western Christianity.
1453 …………………………….Turkish capture of Constantinople; end of Byzantine Empire.

The Early Modern World

East Asia

1405−1433 ……………………Great Chinese fleets.
1600−1868 ……………………Tokugawa shogunate.
1644−1912 ……………………Qing dynasty.

India and Southeast Asia

1498 …………………………….Vasco da Gama (Portugal) to India.
1526−1761 ……………………Mughal Empire. (officially 1857)
18th century …………………..Mughal decline; rise of Sikh state (1708 ff.) and states of southern India.
1744, 1756−1763 …………..French-British wars in India.

Western Civilization

1517 …………………………….Luther’s 95 theses; beginning of Protestant Reformation.
1519−1521 ……………………Magellan’s expedition around the world.
17th century …………………..Scientific Revolution; Galileo (1564−1642), Newton (1642−1727).
1688−1690 ……………………Glorious Revolution in Britain, parliamentary regime; some religious toleration; political writing of John Locke.
18th century …………………..Enlightenment; Voltaire (1694–1778).

Russia and Eastern Europe

1552−1556 ……………………Russian expansion in Central Asia, western Siberia.
1689−1725 ……………………Peter the Great and partial Westernization.

Middle East (Ottoman Empire)

1683 …………………………….Failure of Ottoman assault on Vienna.

Latin America

1794 …………………………….Haitian uprising against France led by Toussaint L’Ouverture; independence and end of slavery there.

The World in the First Industrial Century

Western Civilization

c. 1770 …………………………Invention of the steam engine by Watt; Industrial Revolution begins.
1775−1783 ……………………American Revolution.
1789−1799 ……………………French Revolution.
1848 ff………………………….Writings of Karl Marx.
1864−1871 ……………………German unification.
1871−1914 ……………………Highpoint of Western imperialism.
1914−1918 ……………………World War I.

East Asia

1839−1842 ……………………Opium Wars in China.
1853 …………………………….Perry expedition.
1868−1912 ……………………Meiji period in Japan.
1894−1895 ……………………Sino-Japanese War.
1904−1905 ……………………Russo-Japanese War.
1911 …………………………….Chinese Revolution.

Middle East

1798 …………………………….Napoleon’s Egyptian expedition.
1830 …………………………….First Ottoman reform efforts

Latin America

1808 ff………………………….Formation of governing junta in Venezuela; independence wars in Latin America.
1880 ff………………………….Growing commercialization of Latin American economy.
1910 …………………………….Beginning of Mexican Revolution.

Sub-Saharan Africa

1807−1834 ……………………Abolition of Atlantic slave trade.
1814 …………………………….Acquisition by British of Dutch South Africa.
1870– …………………………..Rapid European Imperialist Gains

India and Southeast Asia

1885 …………………………….Formation of Indian National Congress.

Russia and Eastern Europe

1854−1856 ……………………Crimean War.
1861 …………………………….Russian emancipation of serfs.
1884– …………………………..Beginnings of Russian industrialization; Sergei Witte leading minister; completion of the trans-Siberian railway.
1917 …………………………….Russian Revolution; abolition of the tsarist regime; Bolshevik victory.

Patterns of 20th-Century History

World Events

1919 …………………………….Paris Peace Conference (Versailles); founding of the League of Nations.
1929−1939 ……………………Worldwide economic depression.
1939−1945 ……………………World War II; atomic bomb dropped on Japan.
1947−1989 ……………………Cold War.

Western Civilization

1933−1944 ……………………Nazi regime in Germany.
1940−1944 ……………………Holocaust, slaughter of six million Jews.
1958 …………………………….Founding of European Economic Community (Common Market).

East Asia

1949 …………………………….Communist victory in China.
1978 …………………………….More market economy in China.

India and Southeast Asia

1920 …………………………….Beginning of Gandhi’s nonviolent movement and widened efforts toward decolonization.
1947 …………………………….India and Pakistan independent.

Middle East

1923 ff………………………….Independent Turkey created by Atatürk; modernization drive; rise of independent Persia under Shah Riza Khan.
1948 …………………………….State of Israel declared.
1980−1988 ……………………Iran-Iraq War.

Sub-Saharan Africa

1919 …………………………….First meeting of the Pan-American Congress; rise of African nationalism.
1990 ff………………………….Dismantling of apartheid in South Africa; several democratic elections in Kenya, other nations.

Events, Inventions, and People: Table format

The following table is intended to give a few markers that are interesting for  a global view of human history. I’m interested in the time relation between events, therefore the spreadsheet format.  Over time I will add some more data.

Timeline Social/Political Events Scientific, technological, and artistic events Important People
Pre-Human 230-65 Million BC Dinosaurs.
Before 10000BC Neanderthals: 500.000Bc to 30.000BC.  Homo Sapiens: 130.000BC First use of fire, approx 400,000 years ago.
135,000 BC Modern dog exists.
10000BC-5000BC 10,000 BC Holocene Epoch, end of Ice Age, dead were buried.
8300 BC End of sub-arctic period in Europe.
7,500 BC Human settlements in Yosemite
Stone Age , Neolithic or first agriculture revolution.  Around 9500BC.
5000BC-4000BC   5000BCs: Earliest Neolithic settlement in Crete Bronze Age
4000BC-3000BC 3500 BC Horse Domestication. Before 3300 BC still stone age in South East Asia.
3100BC Minoan civilization in Crete
Writing systems emerge. 3400BC:Hieroglyphics used in Egypt
3000BC-2500BC Pyramid of Gizeh.
2772 BC Egypt started the 365 day calendar
2700BC  Sumerian King Gilgamesh rules the city of Ur (Uruk), now pop of 50,000.
2000BC-1500BC  Indus Valley civilization destroyed (1550) Hammurabi 1850BC
1500BC-1000BC Trojan War 1100BC Iron Age   1200–180 BCE 1391–1271 BC Moses
1000BC-900BC
900BC-800BC
800BC-700BC
700BC-600BC 600’s Persian prophet Zarathustra founds Zoroastrianism. 604 Lao-tse, Chinese philosopher and founder of Taoism, is born
600BC-500BC 510BC Roman Republic is created.
606–539 BCE Babylonian rule in the Mediterranean.
550BC Persia: Cyrus starts the Persian Empire
563BC-483BC Buddha,
Confucius 551–478 BC)
586BC King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon rules.
500BC – 400BC  China: Warring States 475-221BCE  Plato 427BC – 347BC
400BC-300BC  329 Alexander takes Iran. Alexander 356Bc-323BC Aristotle 384BC – 322BC
300BC-200BC Unification of China.  China: Qin Dynasty 221 – 206BC.  Ashoka Buddhist Reforms. 259 – 210BC Qin Shi Huang Di 304 – 232BCE: Ashoka the Great in India.
200BC-100BC  China: Han Dynasty 206BCE – 220CE.
100BC-0  100 Julius Caesar invades Britain 100BC – 44BC Julius Cesar
0-100  34 Missionary journeys of Paul (to 60 AD) The first dictionary was made in China  7BC-26AD Jesus
101-200
201-300 Start of the classic Mayan period, development of writings, art, science, architecture (to 900’s)
301-400  India: Gupta Empire 320-550CE Golden Age of India
360 Huns (Mongols) invade Europe.
401-500 The Roman Empire falls. In 476 C.E. Romulus, the last of the Roman emperors in the west, was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer, who became the first outsider to rule in Rome.  452 – Atilla the Hun died.
501-600  500s – Zen was founded by an Indian monk, Bodhidharma. 570-632 Muhammad
601-700
701-800  711 Muslims conquer Spain.  768-814 Charlemagne. Crowned emperor in 800.
801-900
901-1000
1001-1100 1066 Norman conquest of England
1095-1099 First Crusade
1101-1200  India: Muslim Period 1100–1800 CE  c.1100-1300 Origins of universities in the West 1162 – 1227 Genghis Khan
1201-1300 1204 Crusaders sack Constantinople.
1215 Magna Carta
1291 Fall of last Christian outposts in the Holy Land
 c.1150-1500 Gothic style in architecture and art Thomas Aquinas 1225-1274 Dogen 1200-1253
1301-1400 1347-1350 Black Death Plague in Europe
c.1300-1450 European economic depression
 Renaissance begins in Italy.
1401-1500 1453 Fall of Constantinople. China: Ming Dynasty, 1368 to 1644
1462-1505 Ivan III lays foundation for Russian Empire
 The printing press was invented by Johannes Gutenberg, around 1440.
1501-1600 1543 Copernican Revolution
1601-1700 1687 Newton: Laws of motion, gravitation
1701-1800 Jul 4 1776 Independence of the US. Company rule in India 1757–1858 CE  1781: James Watt patented a 10-horsepower steam engine. 1724 – 1804 Kant
1801-1900  British India 1858–1947 CE 1821: Michael Faraday invented the electric motor. 1859 book On the Origin of Species, Darwin.
1901-2000
  • 1914 – 1918 WW1
  • 1939-1945 WW2
  • Partition of India 1947 CE
  • 1905 Special Relativity
  • 1970s PC emerges,
  • 1969 Moon Landing
  • 1980s: Internet structure is developed; takes off in early 1990s.
 Einstein 1879 – 1955
2001-2100  2003: Decoding of Human Genome complete.

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