The use of torture as a form of punishment was commonplace in European societies into the early 19th century. Today, we are outraged by mass killings, genocide, and ISIS beheadings, but extreme violence has always been there; it runs deep in human history. We are all traumatized, and it is difficult to work through the […]

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Friends and Citizens: The period for a new election of a citizen to administer the executive government of the United States being not far distant, and the time actually arrived when your thoughts must be employed in designating the person who is to be clothed with that important trust, it appears to me proper, especially […]

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The following historical timeline for Africa is adapted from: The African Experience. From “Lucy” to Mandela. By: Kenneth P. Vickery. Teaching Company, 2007. c. 4–3 million B.C Emergence of Australopithecus, possibly the first in the hominid line of evolution, culminating in modern humans in East/Southern Africa. c. 1.5 million B.C Emergence of Homo erectus in […]

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Thanks to modern science, we now know more about religious history than ever: Scientific archaeology began in the 18th century, and since then excavators have been discovering and interpreting evidence, ranging from tiny goddess figurines carved from mammoth ivory to entire sacred landscapes, such as at the Giza plateau in Egypt. The archeological evidence enhances and […]

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The Charter 08 was signed by over three hundred prominent Chinese citizens, and published in 2008. It was conceived and written in admiration of the 1977 Charter 77 in Czechoslovakia. The Chinese document calls not for reform of the current political system, but for an end to it. It wants to abolish one-party rule, and replace […]

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The letter argues for non-violent resistance. People have a moral responsibility to break unjust laws, because there is a deeper natural law that allows us to judge man-made laws.   16 April 1963 My Dear Fellow Clergymen: While confined here in the Birmingham city jail, I came across your recent statement calling my present activities […]

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General George Patton’s speech to the US Third Army was given in 1944, prior to the landing in the Normandy. Patton tried to motivate the inexperienced Third Army for its pending combat duty and terrible losses. He pushed his soldiers to do their duty regardless of personal fear, challenging them to be aggressive and engage […]

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