This text is a foundational text of Western philosophy; it was written in 350 B.C.E. In it, Aristotle defines the nature of philosophy in relation to scientific knowledge. He starts with human curiosity – the desire to know does not need any further explanation.His approach differs from Plato: knowledge starts with the senses, but the […]

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Gilles Deleuze wrote in a Letter to Michele Cressole” My book on Kant is different, I like it very much, I wrote it as a book on an enemy, in it I was trying to show how he works, what his mechanisms are…’ The following transcript of a lecture on Kant was given by Deleuze […]

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Deleuze was very sick in his final years. The last essay he published is very short; it is an extraordinary text. “Immanence: A Life” was published in 1995, and he took his own life on November 4, 1995.  The concept of a “plane of immanence” is borrowed from Spinoza, who used it to describe the […]

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Translated by Benjamin Jowett, from Project Gutenberg. Here are some links that will help to understand the text better:  Plato’s Parmenides (Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy) Parmenides (dialogue) – Wikipedia The symbolic structure of Plato’s Parmenides   PARMENIDES PERSONS OF THE DIALOGUE: Cephalus, Adeimantus, Glaucon, Antiphon, Pythodorus, Socrates, Zeno, Parmenides, Aristoteles. Cephalus rehearses a dialogue which […]

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The text was written in 1949, and addresses the question of metaphysics. Towards the end, he asks: Why is there any being at all and not rather Nothing? “Descartes, writing to Picot, who translated the Principia Philosophiae into French, observed: “Thus the whole of philosophy is like a tree: the roots are metaphysics, the trunk […]

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Chapter VIII of the Phenomenology of the Spirit. (1) 788. THE Spirit manifested in revealed religion has not as yet surmounted its attitude of consciousness as such; or, what is the same thing, its actual self-consciousness is not at this stage the object it is aware of. Spirit as a whole and the moments distinguished […]

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The Phenomenology of the Spirit (German: Phänomenologie des Geistes) was published in 1807, and it is one of G.W.F. Hegel‘s most important philosophical works, and a very influential book in the philosophical tradition. You can also find the German text on this website. PREFACE: ON SCIENTIFIC KNOWLEDGE 1. In the case of a philosophical work it seems […]

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