The medieval period in European history covers over a thousand years of development, from the fall of the Roman Empire in the 5th century to the beginning of the Renaissance in the 16th century. Nearly all of the medieval thinkers – Jewish, Christian, and Muslim – were pre-occupied with the attempt to synthesize philosophy with […]

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What is the relation between human action and natural teleology? In these articles from the beginning of the second part of the Summa Theologica of Thomas Aquinas, he answers that we have to distinguish between human acts that come from a deliberate will, and therefore they are the proper domain of humanity, and actions that […]

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Roger Bacon (not Francis, who is another philosopher) is an early philosopher and scientist. He reflects on the scientific method, and struggles with the balance between science and religion. Biography of Roger Bacon (From the Stanford Encyclopedia) “Roger Bacon (1214/1220–1292), Master of Arts, contemporary of Robert Kilwardby, Peter of Spain, and Albert the Great at […]

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The Catholic Church contains groups of people who are particularly dedicated to it, and who organize themselves in religious orders. They are tasked in various forms with the spreading of the faith. One of the early orders are the Franciscans, created by Saint Francis in the early 13th century. Saint Francis lived an exemplary life […]

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Content: Timeline of his Life 1225 Thomas Aquinas born at Roccasecca 1230 Begins studies at Montecassino 1239 Continues studies at University of Naples 1244 Joins Dominicans; family protests decision by imprisoning him for a year 1245 Released by his family, Thomas goes to Paris to study with Albert the Great 1248 Accompanies Albert to newly […]

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The following streamlined text selections from the Summa Theologiae, Thomas Aquinas’ main work, show his treatment of the philosophical problems of the law. The sections reproduced here contain only the so-called “responsios”; some articles are omitted entirely.  Thomas’s approach is very consistent; he has great confidence that reason can function as a guide to guide […]

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Aurelius Augustinus was born on November 13, 354, in the Numidian town of Thagaste in Roman North Africa (located in the present-day Algeria). His parents were Romans citizens of modest means; his father, Patricius, was a pagan, and his mother, Monica, a Christian.

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