In the 19th century the philosophies of the Enlightenment began to have a dramatic effect, the landmark works of earlier philosophers such as Immanuel Kant and Jean-Jacques Rousseau influences the 19th century generation of thinkers. In the late 18th century a movement known as Romanticism began; it inspires music, literature, and philosophy. The early 19th […]

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It is extremely useful to have access to a guide to Hegel’s philosophical terminology. The glossary below is drawn from the following sources: M. is excellent for this purpose and remains invaluable at all stages in the study of Hegel. There is a helpful glossary in , pp. 273-87. See also H. Kainz’s discussion of […]

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About Schelling From the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: “Friedrich Wilhelm Joseph von Schelling (1775–1854) is, along with J.G. Fichte and G.W.F. Hegel, one of the three most influential thinkers in the tradition of ‘German Idealism’. Although he is often regarded as a philosophical Proteus who changed his conception so radically and so often that it […]

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Friedrich Nietzsche (1844-1900) is one of the most important philosophers of the last 200 years. He foresaw the downfall of Europe, even though he died in 1900, and he influenced many thinkers in the 20th century. He is commonly seen as an existentialist philosopher, but he can be viewed easily  as a precursor to postmodernity as […]

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Sektion 4, A und B. IV. Die Wahrheit der Gewißheit seiner selbst In den bisherigen Weisen der Gewißheit ist dem Bewußtsein das Wahre etwas anderes als es selbst. Der Begriff dieses Wahren verschwindet aber in der Erfahrung von ihm; wie der Gegenstand unmittelbar an sich war, das Seiende der sinnlichen Gewißheit, das konkrete Ding der Wahrnehmung, die […]

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Friedrich Wilhelm Nietzsche: Also sprach Zarathustra. Ein Buch für Alle und Keinen.  Zarathustra’s Vorrede. 1 Als Zarathustra dreissig Jahr alt war, verliess er seine Heimat und den See seiner Heimat und ging in das Gebirge. Hier genoss er seines Geistes und seiner Einsamkeit und wurde dessen zehn Jahr nicht müde. Endlich aber verwandelte sich sein […]

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The website Marxists.org has an extensively researched collection of Hegel texts. The following quotes from Hegel are linked to these texts, so you can read each quote in the context in which it was written, which is very helpful.   When philosophy paints its grey in grey, one form of life has become old, and by means of […]

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