The Fundamental Theorem of Arithmetic states that every positive integer can be written as a product of prime numbers in a unique way. The following description of the theorem and its proof is quoted from the Wikipedia encyclopedia: Definition “In mathematics, and in particular number theory, the fundamental theorem of arithmetic is the statement that […]

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The Prime Number Theorem (PNT) describes the distribution of prime numbers. Euclid could prove that there is an infinite number of primes, but their location can only be predicted by statistical means, as an approximation.  As ordinary numbers get larger and larger,  we find fewer and fewer prime numbers scattered among them. This can easily […]

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The concept of “numbers” is itself very perplexing, and shows the evolution of mathematics from simple arithmetic,  to very complex operations.  Here is a brief overview of the types of numbers: Each type of numbers in the list includes all the types listed above it. N = Natural Numbers = {0, 1, 2, …}. These […]

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