Albert and Bernard just met Cheryl. “When’s your birthday?” Albert asked Cheryl. Cheryl thought a second and said, “I’m not going to tell you, but I’ll give you some clues.” She wrote down a list of 10 dates: May 15, May 16, May 19 June 17, June 18 July 14, July 16 August 14, August […]

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In daily conversations, we come across many logical fallacies. Discussions and debates often lead nowhere, because the underlying logic is already wrong. Looking for better explanations or more evidence is a good approach, and another one is attacking the problems in your opponents position. The following list briefly describes some of the most common fallacies: You don’t need to […]

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Here is the biographical sketch of Kurt Gödel’s life from the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy: Biographical Sketch Kurt Gödel was born on April 28, 1906 in what was then the Austro-Hungarian city of Brünn, and what is now Brno in the Czech Republic. Gödel’s father Rudolf August was a businessman, and his mother Marianne was a […]

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The Incompleteness Theorem is Gödel’s main contribution to 20th century thought. Gödel showed that within a logical system such as Russell and Whitehead had developed for arithmetic, propositions can be formulated that are undecidable or undemonstrable within the axioms of the system. That is, within the system, there exist certain clear-cut statements that can neither be proved or […]

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A set is a collection of things. A set can consist of numbers or letters (such as 1, 2, 3, 4 or a, b, c, d) or of objects (such as chairs or books). Set theory is the field of mathematics that deals with the properties of sets that are independent of the things that […]

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From: W. L. Craig: “Professor Mackie and the Kalām Cosmological Argument,” in: Religious Studies, No. 20 (1985), p. 367. “The kalām cosmological argument, as opposed to the Thomistic and Leibnizian, is one of the better-respected arguments for the existence of God. Because its validity is not controversial, because it aligns with the most prominent scientific […]

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Explanation of the terms  in the image above. This is Godel’s formalized proof of the existence of God. P(psi) P is “positive” G(x) x have the property God ess. essential E existing • (bullet) Necessary (Kurt Gödel (1995). “Ontological Proof”. Collected Works: Unpublished Essays & Lectures, Volume III. pp. 403–404. Oxford University Press. Gödel left in his […]

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