Source: Volume 1. Leo Lowenthal, published by Transaction Books, 1984. Leo Löwenthal (1900-1993) was a sociologist associated with the Frankfurt School. He began his career by joining the Institute for Social Research in 1927 and became managing editor of its journal Zeitschrift für Sozialforschung. Soon thereafter he migrated to the United States where he held […]

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“On the Problem of Form,” or: “Über die Formfrage,” was a text written by Wassily Kandinsky for the book Der Blaue Reiter, (The Blue Rider, 1912). It expresses the ideas of a group of artists around  Kandinsky and Franz Marc who lived in Murnau nearby Munich. They formed the core of the movement of Expressionism. In his […]

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Written in 1938, during André Breton’s trip to Mexico, where he visited Leon Trotsky. It is signed by André Breton and Diego Rivera. It is believed that the Manifesto was written by Trotsky and André Breton, although it was signed by Rivera and Breton. The trip to Mexico provided the opportunity for Breton to meet Leon […]

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André Breton (1896 – 1966) was a French writer, poet, and anti-fascist. He is known as the founder of Surrealism, which he defined as a movement in the First Surrealist Manifesto in 1924. (“Le Manifeste du Surréalisme,” 1924. The following excerpts are quoted from: . New York: McGraw-Hill, 1971. pp. 66-75.) We are still living under […]

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It is spring in California, and we had plenty of rain through the winter. Everything is in bloom, and the De Young Museum uses this abundance to organize its annual “Bouquets to Art” exhibition. The idea is simple, and it draws huge crowds of spectators. The museum invites floral designers and artists to let themselves […]

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This text was written in 1936. “Our fine arts were developed, their types and uses were established, in times very different from the present, by men whose power of action upon things was insignificant in comparison with ours. But the amazing growth of our techniques, the adaptability and precision they have attained, the ideas and […]

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2016 was a strange year: more refugees, Brexit, the US Election disaster, a coup d’état by the Government in Turkey, the destruction of Aleppo, Russian and Chinese hacking, the mainstream emergence of artificial intelligence, and self-driving cars are hitting the road. The environmental record is worse than predicted: mass extinction is under way, the oceans […]

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